Since the mid-1980s, Congress and state legislatures have passed numerous environmental protection statutes. Agencies will have to cope with the increased workload created by these statutes by developing new enforcement techniques and strategies. A comparison with the Dutch enforcement system shows that increasing the role of local governments will help promote new enforcement schemes. Other methods for coping with the new workload will include increased reliance on criminal penalties, citizen enforcement efforts, field citations, strategic planning, and administrative penalty orders.
Paddock, LeRoy C., "Environmental Enforcement at the Turn of the Century" (1991). Pace Law Faculty Publications. Paper 233.