From its initial codification in the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide to its most recent inclusion in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, the international crime of genocide has been defined as involving an "intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such." The predominant interpetation of this language views genocide as a crime of "specific" or "special" intent, in which the perpetrator deliberately seeks the whole or partial destruction of a protected group. This Note pursues an alternate approach. Relying on both the history of the Genocide Convention and on a substantive critique of the specific intent interpretation, it argues that, in defined situations, principal culpability for genocide should extend to those who may personally lack a specfic genocidal purpose, but who commit genocidal acts while understanding the destructive consequences of their actions.
Greenawalt, Alexander K.A., "Rethinking Genocidal Intent: The Case for a Knowledge-Based Interpretation" (1999). Pace Law Faculty Publications. Paper 338.