In the past, courts generally deferred to legislatures when determining whether a law constitutes a regulatory taking. However, not all regulations are treated equal, and different tests apply to different types of regulations. Types of land use actions with a lower threshold of constitutionally include exactions, and regulations that apply fixed fee schedules to private landowners. This article combs both federal and New York law to come to the clear determination that universal standards exist for each type of regulation.
John R. Nolon and Jessica A. Bacher, Exacting Tests: Determining When a Taking Is Unconstitutional, New York Law Journal, Dec. 17, 2003, at 5.