The Relationship between IQ and Adaptive Functioning in Adolescents and Young Adults with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder and Bipolar Disorder
Previous research has examined the relationship between intelligence and adaptive functioning (AF) in adults with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder (SSD) (which in this paper will refer to Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective disorder), and Bipolar Disorder (BD). These studies have suggested that many adults with these disorders, particularly SSD, have lower full scale intelligence quotients (FSIQs) and impairments in AF. However, studies on adolescents and young adults with psychotic or other severe psychiatric disorders, such as BD and low FSIQ's rarely investigate AF impairments. Currently, there do not appear to be any studies investigating these relationships in adolescents with SSD and BD who are in residential treatment. The current study aims to fill this gap by examining the unique effect of psychopathology, specifically SSD and BD, on AF in an adolescent and young adult sample in residential treatment by controlling for IQ. One possibility is that those with SSD are particularly at risk for low AF because of the risk of low IQ associated with SSD. The relationship between Full Scale IQ Scores (FSIQ) and AF in adolescents and young adults with DSM-IV diagnoses of BD (43) and SSD (28) who were in residential treatment were examined. This study utilized a retrospective chart review of closed medical records of adolescents and young adults who were discharged from a residential treatment center between 2004 and 2014. It was anticipated that when controlling for IQ, the adolescents and young adults with SSD would have lower AF scores than those with BD. It was further hypothesized that when adolescents and young adults with SSD and adolescents and young adults with BD had equivalent levels of AF, those with SSD would need to have higher IQ scores to attain the same level of AF. The study found that individuals considered to have higher levels of AF had higher IQ's, regardless of whether they had BD or SSD. Contrary to expectations, there was a fairly strong relationship between IQ and AF in individuals with BD and not in those with SSD. A value of this study is that it illustrates the limitations of the use of archival data in studies of the relationships between cognition and AF in youth with serious psychiatric disorders who are in residential treatment. Obtaining a more holistic picture of similar samples that incorporate additional demographic data, family histories, information on adverse life events, and detailed accounts of onset of diagnosis and symptoms, would help to more clearly elucidate the relationship between IQ and AF in youth with SSD or BD. Not only will this help clinicians gain a better understanding of these individuals' performance, but it will also make them more cognizant in treatment of issues that may impact patients' social, emotional, cognitive, and AF. Keywords: Bipolar disorder, Schizophrenia, Adaptive Functioning, Cognitive functioning, Adolescents
Eff, Henry, "The Relationship between IQ and Adaptive Functioning in Adolescents and Young Adults with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder and Bipolar Disorder" (2020). ETD Collection for Pace University. AAI28288997.
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