Effect of Parental Expectations and Parental Pressure on Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement of Students

Ranjana Hari, Pace University


The current study explored the effect of perceived parental expectations and perceived parental pressure on the self-esteem and academic achievement of students, as well as the mediating influence of self-esteem. Participants were 151 students recruited from universities across the US. Most of the participants were female (72.8%) and in the age range 18-22 years (67.5%). Students completed an online survey which included demographics and measures related to students' perceptions of their parents' academic expectations, parental pressure, self-esteem, and self-reported high school and college GPA. The results suggest that both high perceived parental expectations and high perceived parental pressure lead to low self-esteem but were not related to academic achievement. Additionally, self-esteem did not significantly mediate the relation between either perceived parental expectations or perceived parental pressure and academic achievement. However, secondary analyses showed that perceived parental pressure was negatively associated with college GPA in the age range 23-26 years old only. Perceived parental expectations and pressure led to lower self-esteem primarily in females, white students, and those who were either freshmen or sophomores in college or in their master's program. These results suggest that the relationship between parental expectations or pressure and self-esteem and academic achievement is nuanced and is also influenced by culture. It may also be dynamic and influenced by circumstances such as the pandemic.

Subject Area

Psychology|Social psychology|Developmental psychology

Recommended Citation

Hari, Ranjana, "Effect of Parental Expectations and Parental Pressure on Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement of Students" (2022). ETD Collection for Pace University. AAI30294915.



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