Parenting as measured by the Parenting Behaviors Questionnaire

Penni Morganstein, Pace University


The relationship between parent behaviors, child development and subsequent child behavior outcomes has been examined. However, few tools have been developed and utilized to assess and quantify parenting behaviors in relationship to parent and child demographic characteristics. This study uses the Parenting Behaviors Questionnaire (PBQ), to examine whether parent and child backgrounds influence parents' perceptions of their parenting. Specifically, the present study examines the parenting characteristics identified in the Parent Development Theory (PDT) (i.e., bonding, discipline, education, general welfare and protection, responsivity and sensitivity) in relation to parent and child age, gender, ethnicity, and marital status. Within this parent sample, findings reveal differences in parenting behaviors based on parental ethnicity. Specifically, discipline, general welfare and protection, responsivity and sensitivity, with regard to child rearing beliefs, appear less important to the Asian Pacific Islander population than to the African American/Black and Caucasian groups. In addition, this study suggests significant differences in parenting behaviors based on child gender. However, differences based on parent gender did not emerge. Specifically, both male and female parents in this sample place greater importance on being sensitive to and bonding with male rather than female children. The findings of this study need to be examined with caution as limitations may stem from various sources. Although the percentage of respondents within each demographic group accurately reflect the occurrence of each ethnicity within the community sampled, the low number of actual surveys returned by Asian/Pacific Islander and Multi-Ethnic groups make it difficult to offer conclusions. A similar problem arises when examining marital status given the low number of respondents identifying themselves as divorced or separated. The cohort is too small to offer conclusions regarding marital status. Further, the distribution process utilized may have resulted in fewer research packets reaching parents than expected. Additionally, reduced interest by parents to respond to research related matters, in conjunction with the fact that the questionnaire was distributed late in the school year, may have impacted the low response rate. The limitations impact the results and implications of this study suggesting that further research is needed. Implications of this study and suggestions for future research are offered.

Subject Area

Social psychology|Developmental psychology

Recommended Citation

Morganstein, Penni, "Parenting as measured by the Parenting Behaviors Questionnaire" (2006). ETD Collection for Pace University. AAI3202749.



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