The Sense of Self and Other Scale: An exploratory study and evaluation of construct validity

Lilline Senet Adler, Pace University


Research shows that the sense-of-self is a concept that is central to the understanding of how people interact with the world around them. It is thought to develop in early childhood and continue into adulthood. The literature on the self indicates that both early attachment and culture play a role in one's sense of self. This study established construct validity of a new measure of the sense-of-self called the Sense of Self and Other Scale (SOSO). The sample consisted of 205 participants, made up of 101 females and 104 males ranging in age from 18 to 40 Each participant filled out a demographics form in addition to the SOSO, BORI and BDI. In this study two of the three SOSO subscales, Overlapping and Ideal Overlapping, on which participants rated their relationship with 50 objects using a 4-point Likert scale were examined. Factor analysis was performed on the 150 items resulting in five factors for each subscale. Additionally, demographics, such as gender and a history of trauma, were examined in relation to a persons self-reported experience of the other as measured by the SOSO. The ten SOSO factors were then correlated with a measure of object relations called the Bell Object Relations Inventory (BORI) in order to establish construct validity. The construct validity was also established through examining correlations between the SOSO factors and a measure of depression called the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results revealed some significant correlations with factors of the SOSO. In particular, using zero-order correlations there were significant indirect correlations found between the SOSO Person's experience of their relationship with positive qualities and Alienation on the BORI. There was a direct correlation between Person's experience of their relationship with negative emotions and the BDI. The exploratory nature of this study yielded some additional results. Some significant differences in SOSO scores were noted in relation to gender, however there were none with regards to trauma. Importantly, it also provided evidence that those with negative self views may also have difficulties in their relationship with others.

Subject Area

Clinical psychology|Quantitative psychology

Recommended Citation

Adler, Lilline Senet, "The Sense of Self and Other Scale: An exploratory study and evaluation of construct validity" (2010). ETD Collection for Pace University. AAI3407266.



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