Maternal Growing and Shrinking Movements in Mother-Infant Interaction Correspondent to Maternal Self Criticism and Dependency: Application and Utilization of the Kestenberg Movement Profile (KMP) in a Microanalysis
Recent microanalytic studies have identified significant links between maternal depression and the timing of nonverbal features of mother-infant interactions, including heightened and matched affects, maternal intrusiveness, mutual withdrawal, and lowered or heightened self-contingencies—meaning the predictability of staying in the same state (Beebe, et al., 2008; Beebe, Jaffe, et al., 2010; Field, et al., 1990; Hatzinikolaou & Murray, 2010; Tronick & Reck, 2009; Tronick & Weinberg, 1997). Coding of Shape Flow patterns, or growing and shrinking movements across horizontal, vertical, and sagittal dimensions, components of the larger, Kestenberg Movement Profile (KMP; Kestenberg, 1975; Kestenberg Amighi, Loman, Lewis, & Sossin, 1999), described facial changes in eighty-seven mothers, while they were interacting with their 12 month olds, as part of the multifaceted and longitudinal studies of Beebe and colleagues' (2007, 2008, 2010, 2011). Lag sequential analyses (Noldus Observer XT, Yule's Q) of the maternal Shape Flow variables, observed at 12 months, were correlated with maternal dependency and self criticism, factors of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ; Blatt, D'Afflitti, & Quinlan, 1976), assessed when the subjects' infants were six weeks, and four and 12 months old. The auto-correlation, or sequence of Bipolar Shortening followed by itself within a one-second time lag, was related to maternal heightened dependency at six weeks. A positive correlation was noted between the sequence Unipolar Bulging-Bipolar Shortening within a one-second time lag, and maternal self criticism at six weeks and dependency at 12-months. Support for subtypes of women with depression, and longstanding effects from maternal depression on nonverbal features within mother-infant interactions, were additionally generated. Specific sequences, Unipolar Hollowing followed by Unipolar Bulging and Bipolar Lengthening followed by Bipolar Shortening, appeared indicative of personal resilience, potentially serving dyadic repair. This study demonstrates the reliable use of KMP Shape Flow elements in a microanalytic, frame-by-frame model, and supports the KMP's validity in measuring nonverbal components of affective change. Future implications for the utility of KMP and the prevention and treatment of maternal depression are discussed.^ Keywords: Kestenberg Movement Profile, maternal depression, microanalysis, lag sequential analyses ^
Women's Studies|Psychology, Developmental|Psychology, Clinical
Reale, Amy E, "Maternal Growing and Shrinking Movements in Mother-Infant Interaction Correspondent to Maternal Self Criticism and Dependency: Application and Utilization of the Kestenberg Movement Profile (KMP) in a Microanalysis" (2011). ETD Collection for Pace University. AAI3483895.
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