Stress, depression, and self-esteem measures of drug abusing adolescents and adults in drug rehabilitation: A program evaluation
The literature reveals that many factors have been found to be related to drug use and abuse. This study investigated the relationship between and among the variables of stress, depression, and self-esteem, and the use of drugs among drug abusing adolescents and adults in treatment at a Therapeutic Community. There was a total of 87 subjects, male and female, who were predominantly African-American and ranged in age from 18-48 with a median age of 30. These subjects comprised the 3 different comparison groups: Orientation, Main Treatment and Reentry. Paper and pencil questionnaires were used to obtain the data. A demographic drug usage questionnaire was given which measured the degree of drug use, age of initial use of drugs, and feelings associated with use. Stress was assessed using the Preadolescents' Self Perceived Stressor Inventory (PSSI) and the Symptom Checklist 90R (SCL-90) Anxiety subscale (ANX). The variable of depression was assessed using the Depression Adjective Checklist Form E (DACL) and the SCL-90 Depression subscale (DEP). Level of self-esteem was evaluated using the Tennessee Self Concept Scale (TSCS) and the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory (SEI). The Orientation, Main Treatment and Reentry groups were compared to each other on the variables of stress, depression, and self-esteem. The Orientation group had higher levels of depression than the Main Treatment group on the SCL-90 depression subscale (t(55) = 2.57, p =.013). The Orientation group had higher levels of depression than the Reentry group on the SCL-90 depression scale (t(50) = 3.78, p =.001) and on the DACL (t(50) = $-$3.41, p =.001). On the SCL-90 Anxiety scale the Orientation group had higher anxiety than the Reentry group (t(50) = 3.73, p =.001). The hypothesis that there would be a relationship between stress, depression, and self-esteem, and drug usage was analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlations. The results show that significant correlations were found for 8 of the 15 drugs investigated and the variables of stress, depression, and self-esteem. The findings from this study suggest that stress, depression, and self-esteem are factors which are related to drug abuse and do improve during treatment in a therapeutic community. These factors, then, may be targeted specifically during treatment. Additionally, when the psychological conditions of high stress, depression and poor self-esteem are evident in individuals they may be flagged as being at high risk for becoming drug abusers.
Colwes, Carrie, "Stress, depression, and self-esteem measures of drug abusing adolescents and adults in drug rehabilitation: A program evaluation" (1993). ETD Collection for Pace University. AAI9407858.
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