Prepared for: Dr. Sheying Chen

Document Type



The goal of this report was to study scientific-based programs that promote the Theory of Cognition as the foundation to learning and teaching special education students and students classified as learning disabled in the public schools of under-served communities; to inform families who live and send their children to public schools in under-served communities of these alternative approaches to learning, inform them of their rights during IEP reviews and requesting an impartial hearing; and stop the School to Prison Pipeline. The research shows how students classified as special education in the most restrictive environment and students classified as Learning Disabled in the least restrictive environment benefit from such cognitive programs as well as why the specific diagnosis of a learning disability is paramount for finding the best learning program to meet a student’s needs. Additionally, the data shows how susceptible special education students and those receiving services under special education, from under-served communities are to becoming statistics within the School to Prison Pipeline; However, rather than investing funds in the proper education of all students through scientific-based programs, parents are forced to vie for funds and placements in schools and private programs to meet their children’s needs in a ‘Squeaky Wheel Gets the Oil’ fashion, proving to be counter to the idea of social equity throughout New York City Public Schools & to the overall idea of a Free And Appropriate Public Education (FAPE).