Inclusion of Incentive and Punitive Measures in Multilateral Environmental Agreement: A Suggestion on How the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Can be Utilized to Influence the Reduction of Gas Flaring in the Oil and Gas Exploration Fields of Nigeria
Gas flaring is categorized as one of the important contributors to greenhouse gases, which increases the risk of global warming and climate change. The overdependence of the modern economy and most industrial technologies on fossil fuels has created a situation in countries where fossil fuels are exploited. The governments rely majorly on the revenue from exporting oil. The IOCs that are engaged in the mining of oil and gas have been able to influence policy and law enforcement on gas flaring to such an extent that the National laws are not enforced, or the stipulated fines are abysmally low that they sound ridiculous when compared to the damage to the environment and the effect of this gas flaring and environmental degradation on the unborn generation.
International law is a system of rules and principles that govern the relations and dealings of nations with each other, a has a role to play where the actions of a nation affect other nations. Climate change and global warming affect the whole planet therefore, the treaties relating to global warming and climate change should be applied in a way that makes it effective to curtail unnecessary and harmful gas flaring from Nigeria.
The UNFCCC and the subsequent Kyoto protocol, and the Paris agreement have all been lenient with the responsibilities placed on developing nations because of the need for development and the negligible contributions to global warming but unfortunately developing nations are usually disproportionately affected by global crises and that is the more reason why there needs to be a system to help develop the gas exploration technology in Africa to reduce the global warm, and also reduce the over-reliance of Europe energy market on one source.
The CDM system developed in the Paris agreement can be used as a reliable tool to achieve the necessary incentives to reduce gas flaring in Nigeria if there is the political will by interested nations and the Nigerian Government.
Temiloluwa Elijah Olanrewaju, Inclusion of Incentive and Punitive Measures in multilateral Environmental Agreement: A Suggestion on How the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change Can be Utilized to Influence the Reduction of Gas Flaring in the Oil and Gas Exploration fields of Nigeria, (Spring 2022) (SJD dissertation, Elisabeth Haub School of Law at Pace University), https://digitalcommons.pace.edu/lawdissertations/31/