The process of obtaining effective implementation of environmental laws is a process of “environmental governance.” Law, including environmental law and other fields of law related to environmental law, is essential to frame, facilitate, and foster the major parties to correctly play their roles.

This thesis has been articulated through a Model of Interactions of Parties in the Process of Environmental Protection (IPPEP Model), which has been developed by Professor Wang Xi of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, in the context of the People’s Republic of China. The IPPEP Model is a tool for observing and accessing environmental governance at work. It is being tested by regional studies in various locations, such as the United States, the State of New York, and in this IPPEP case study of New York’s Hudson River Valley. The IPPEP model being examined, however, has universal applicability. Use of this model can predict that environmental standards will fail to be observed when necessary “Third Parties” are weak or absent. A nation with a commitment to the “rule of law” will enact and apply necessary legal procedures to ensure that each party can take part in the system and perform their role effectively.

Part I of this paper describes the IPPEP Model. Part II is a brief introduction to the history of Hudson River Valley. Part III introduces the major parties or players in the process of protecting Hudson River Valley. Part IV consists of five case studies applying the IPPEP Model in cases of Hudson River Valley conservation. Part V concludes the paper.