Baumrind's parenting styles and their relationship to the parent developmental theory

Rebecca Hale, Pace University


Research has explored the various beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions upheld by parents as well as behaviors performed by parents. However, few studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between the link between parenting role characteristics and parenting behavior. Baumrind identified three central models of parental control: permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative. Based on the review of the literature, authoritative parenting styles have been associated with many successful child developmental outcomes. Permissive and authoritarian parenting styles have not been found to have these same positive effects on child outcomes. Mowder developed the parent developmental theory (PDT) which provides a framework for understanding individuals' parenting perceptions and behaviors as well as understanding how individuals continually reevaluate their ideas about parenting overtime. According to the PDT six primary characteristics (i.e., bonding, discipline, general welfare and protection, responsivity, sensitivity) are associated with the parenting role. This study utilized Baumrind's parenting styles and compared them to Mowder's parent role characteristics using the Parenting Style Questionnaire and the PBIQ-Revised. Although this research did not find significant differences between parenting styles and parenting role characteristics there were significant differences found as a function of gender. In addition, the main effect of ethnicity was significant as well as an overall significant interaction between parenting style, ethnicity, and parent role characteristics. Overall, this research provides a framework to understand the intricacies of parenting styles and parenting role characteristics through the work of Baumrind and Mowder respectively, as well as provides clinicians the opportunity to utilize the PBIQ-R developed by Mowder in evaluating parents' ideas about parent role characteristics they value.

Subject Area

Social psychology|Psychotherapy

Recommended Citation

Hale, Rebecca, "Baumrind's parenting styles and their relationship to the parent developmental theory" (2008). ETD Collection for Pace University. AAI3319535.



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