Document Type



The GCC has experienced rapid population growth and urbanization in the last 40 years. The rise in population has caused a surge in e-waste within the GCC countries. Electronic waste poses severe health and environmental risks, calling for the adoption of a circular economy where e-wastes are converted into valuable products through recycling. However, achieving a circular economy requires a robust legal framework, technologies and policies as practiced globally. The Global E-waste Monitor has traced e-waste generation in the GCC countries since 2014. One critical finding is that the e-waste generation has surged with population growth, urbanization and the advancement in technology that encourages the use of new electronic devices and dumping of electrical and electronic equipment considered obsolete. The end-of-life of electronic devices has been shortened due to the population's technological advancement and increased affordability of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE). Drawing on the literature, this study explored whether the GCC has an adequate legal framework to enable a circular economy by recycling e-wastes rather than dumping them in landfills. The research sought to find the best practices on e-waste recycling globally and compare them to the GCC settings. The study examined the adequacy of the GCC legal framework and the ability to achieve a circular economy using a qualitative case study methodology where e-waste management policies and legislation are examined in different GCC states to understand e-waste management in the region. A descriptive study design was used to explore the current GCC states’ legal frameworks and e-waste management status using primary and secondary data sources. The data was collected from the GCC states government documents by examining the constitutions, published environmental laws and policies, government websites and other secondary sources like journal articles and international organizations’ reports. The study established that achieving a circular economy in the GCC is minimal because of limited laws regulating e-waste recycling. Further, the region has not adopted the best technology to recycle e-wastes as seen in European settings. The inadequate legal framework should be addressed to ensure proper e-waste recycling to achieve a circular in the GCC countries.