This Article is the first to provide a legal emoji dictionary. We have reviewed over 100 cases to provide a legal definition of emojis as interpreted by U.S. case law. Our Article will have three parts. Part I offers a brief overview of the history of emojis and their increasing prevalence in U.S. case law, Part II highlights cases that have wrestled with emoji interpretation; and finally, Part III presents a detailed database of the emojis parties have introduced in courts of law with their legal interpretations--largely through context.
Leslie Y. Garfield Tenzer and Ashley Cangro, An Emoji Legal Dictionary, 83 U. Pitt. L. Rev. Online 1 (2022), https://digitalcommons.pace.edu/lawfaculty/1250/.