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The Juvenile Offender Act of 1978 incorporates the most radical and perhaps the most controversial amendments to New York's juvenile delinquency statutes in several decades. For the first time since 1909, children accused of committing serious offenses are subject to prosecution in the criminal courts. The gradual decriminalization of delinquency, which began a century and a half ago, has been reversed. This report analyzes and evaluates the Act and its implementation. The first two sections summarize the historical development of juvenile delinquency legislation and compare present New York provisions to those in other states. Sections III and IV will evaluate the Act's implementation throughout the criminal and juvenile systems. Recommendations to amend the Act in the last section are largely predicated on the experience to date in applying the statute to youths accused of committing juvenile offenses.